One of the challenges for early detection and prevention of lung squamous cell carcinoma is the lack of understanding of the molecular and cellular changes that cause initiation and progression of this disease. Airway premalignant lesions are the precursors of lung squamous cell carcinoma and can be detected and monitored by autofluorescence bronchoscopy. However, many of these lesions will regress without clinical intervention, and only a subset will progress to invasive carcinoma. The goal of this study is to characterize the landscape of somatic mutations in airway premalignant lesions and to develop an early detection biomarker using targeted DNA sequencing that can predict risk of lesion progression. Ultra-deep whole-exome sequencing will be performed on a previously collected cohort of airway premalignant lesions from high-risk smokers that have been sampled over time, characterized histologically, and classified into those that are stable, regress, or progress. Significantly mutated genes, recurrent copy number changes, and mutational signatures will be identified, and a determination will be made whether they are associated with lesion histology or progression or regression status. Finally, the findings from this study will be combined with the driver genes from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to build a targeted DNA sequencing panel. This panel will serve as a rapid and relatively inexpensive method for monitoring premalignant lesions from patients over time and can be used in a clinical trial to assess the ability of autofluorescence bronchoscopy in combination with molecular profiling to stratify patients and serve as a companion diagnostic in chemoprevention trials.